冷冻酵母的基础

THE BASICS OF FROZEN YEAST-LEAVENED LAMINATED DOUGHS
冷冻酵母的基础-膨胀层状面团
 
 
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BAKERY CONSULTANT
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SINGAPORE
 
 
 
一、 LEAVENING ACTION膨胀作用
FROM THREE SOURCES:三个来源
·Baking characteristics from wet gluten湿面筋产生烘焙特性
·Layered structure from unbaked material分层结构由非烘焙物质产生
·Carbon dioxide from the yeast由酵母产生的二氧化碳
二、 BAKING CHARACTERISTICS FROM WET GLUTEN湿面筋产生的烘焙特性
GLUTEN EXPANDS ENORMOUSLY ON BAKING,DEP;ENDING ON:面筋在烘焙过程中产生巨大扩展,由于
·Strength of the gluten面筋强度
·Development of the gluten面筋延展性
·Baking temperature焙烤温度
三、 BOLUME ATTAINED DURING BAKING焙烤中达到的体积
BOLUME ATTAINED DURING BAKING INCREASES AS:烘焙中达到的体积增加是由于:
·Gluten forming potential of flour increases面粉中面筋成型能力增加
·Gluten development increases面筋延展性增加
·Baking temperature increases焙烤温度增加
四、 GAS RESPONSIBLE FOR VOLUME INCREASE气体会引起体积 的增大
·Water vapor from the dough water由面团中水产生的水蒸气
·Fat layers in the structure acts as barriers against which water vapor can exert pressure结构中的油脂层充当了水汽蒸发的障碍
·Expansion of the air cells in the proofed dough发酵面团中气室的扩展
五、BASIC INGREDIENTS基础成分
·Flour                      面粉
·Water                      水
·Yeast                      酵母
·Salt                       盐
·Sugar                      糖
·Dough fat                  油脂
·Layering fat or roll-in fat      片/层状油脂
六、OPTIONAL INGREDIENTS可选择成分
·Whole eggs                 全蛋
·Milk or milk solids           奶或固态奶
·Coloring                   色素
·Flavor                     香料
·Dough conditioners          面团
七、FLOUR面粉
·Forms final structure形成**终结构
·Gluten forming potential面筋成型能力
·High protein高蛋白12.00-14.00%
·Intermediate protein中间蛋白10.50-11.90%
·Higher protein gives greater volume较高蛋白产生较大体积
·Higher protein gives greater stability when frozen
冷冻时较高蛋白也会产生较大的稳定性
·Lower protein gives better eating quality-more tender bite
低蛋白会令到口感更好-更松软
八、WATER水
·Hydration for flour面粉水化
·Gluten formation面筋形成
·Source of water vapor pressure水蒸气压力的来源
·Solvent for yeast, salt, sugar, milk solids and additives
酵母、盐、糖、奶粉及添加剂的溶解
·Controls sough temperature控制面团温度
·Amount used depends on type of flour used & hardness of layering fat用量由使用面粉的类型及层状油脂的硬度决定
·Generally less water is used to maintain shape when thawing and proofing 为了在解冻或发酵时保持形状通常用水较少
·Yeast that is damaged during the freezing process releases a reducing agent that tends to weaken the gluten structure冷冻中被破坏的酵母释放出还原剂会削弱面筋结构
·Product tends to sag during thawing and proofing在解冻及发酵时产品有趋向塌陷
九、YEAST酵母
·Leavening agent-producer of carbon dioxide during proofing膨胀剂-在发酵过程中产生二氧化碳
·The higher the amount of sugar and fat, the more yeast is required糖及脂的含量越高,需要越多的酵母
·Ensure the yeast is for high sugar type dough确保酵母是用于富汗糖的面团
·For frozen dough, additional yeast is required to take into account the yeast that will be damaged during the freezing process对于冷冻面团,考虑到酵母在冷冻过程中会被破坏,需要额外添加酵母
·The additional use is 1.5 to 2 times normal额外用量为常规用量的1.5**2倍
·Use only fresh compressed yeast or special yeast for frozen dough冷冻面团只可使用鲜榨酵母或特制酵母
·If fresh compressed yeast is used, make sure that it is as fresh as possible若使用鲜榨酵母应确保酵母尽可能新鲜

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